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The Cost Study 2023 – Carnegie Classifications

Based on the 2021 Carnegie Taxonomy Basic Classification

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The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education are overseen by the collaboration of The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the American Council on Education. Since the 2005 cycle, The Cost Study at UD has utilized the Basic Classification taxonomy of higher education institutions to group institutions into 4 Carnegie Class Benchmark Group Categories: Research Universities, Doctoral Universities, Master’s (Comprehensive) Colleges and Universities, and Baccalaureate Colleges. The classifications were updated in 2010, 2015, 2018, and 2021. The 2023 cycle will continue to group institutions as shown below based on 2021 Carnegie Classifications. The abbreviations indicated reflect the 2015 system but are still congruent with the 2021 classification criteria.

  • Research Institutions include:
    • Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity (R1)
    • Doctoral Universities – High Research Activity (R2)
  • Doctoral Institutions will now include:
    • Doctoral / Professional Universities  (D/PU [R3])
  • Comprehensive Institutions will now include:
    • Master’s Colleges & Universities – Larger Programs (M1)
    • Master’s Colleges & Universities – Medium Programs (M2)
    • Master’s Colleges & Universities – Smaller Programs (M3)
  • Baccalaureate Institutions will now include:
    • Baccalaureate Colleges – Arts & Science Focus (B1)
    • Baccalaureate Colleges – Diverse Fields (B2)


We will note all Special Focus Institutions (SF)